Ruth, is a symbol of the grain: like a seed, she comes to be planted in a new region. She is a staff of life: she brings sustenance to her mother-in-law Naomi who represents the Jewish people, and she marries Boaz, the elderly and generous man who perhaps represents the earth because he harvested the field to feed other. In union with Boaz, Ruth sustains the nation by giving birth to the messianic line. Ruth brings her baby to the bereaved Naomi—the baby, named Oved (meaning “worker” or “one who makes a sacred offering”) symbolizes the new seed. Through this new seed, Ruth miraculously renews the life of the people just as the grain harvest renews human life. She gives us the line which King David is born through.

King David, who is romantic and tragic in his own right, is the perfect symbol of the harvested grain, and perhaps that’s why we mourn him on Shavuot and just because he was born and died on this special holiday. Just as the grain returns again and again, we sing the shir of David: “David Melekh Yisrael Chai Vekayam; David, King of Israel, Lives Forever.” No wonder we read the book of Ruth on Shavuot: this book speaks of how David comes to be born, and also describes the harvest of the grain.

David’s life was not easy one. David had many challenges in fact David said in the Psalms that he was conceived in sin — he meant it quite literally. His mother conceived him in an act of sin with his father Jesse whom she was not married to.

“Behold, I was brought forth in iniquity, and in sin my mother conceived me.” (Psalm 51:5)

This might explain what happened when G-d told Samuel to go to Bethlehem to anoint one of the sons of Jesse (notice G-d says the one anointed has to be one of Jesse’s sons) as the next king of Israel, replacing Saul ( see 1 Samuel 16:1-13).

The Tanach (Bible) tells us the elders were trembling when the prophet showed up (see verse 4). Samuel made the elders afraid, so when G-d’s prophet asked for all the sons, the elders would make sure they were there, but however as we read on we see that all were not there.

They excluded David. Why? Some suggest this happened because he was the youngest, or he was not educated enough that maybe he had a stutter in his speech like Moses did, but considering the fear they had of Samuel, this does not make sense. However, if David was born out of wedlock by a woman who was not his father’s wife he would in fact be considered illegitimate. This is how these elders could rationalize not including David.

Never the less when Samuel realized that none of the sons before him was the one G-d chose, the prophet asked if there were any others. The elders were shaking from fear and did quickly bring David in from the fields and Samuel did anointed him as king.

You see in order for David to be anointed King he had to be a true son of Jesse which David truly was Jesse’s son. Now before readers start getting upset there is more to the story and this also did not change David’s Jewish status. His mother was fully Jewish she just was not a wife of Jesse at the time he was concieved which is why David states in the Psalms that he was conceived in sin. We later see that David’s commits a similar sin with another woman Bethsheva that was not his wife but later becomes his wife.

But when I shared this with Friends one or two came back to me with a article by Dr. J.D. Watson which says this

“For one thing, you are giving Jewish commentaries far too much credibility. Plus, if this totally groundless theory were true, then David would have been a bastard and would not have been allowed to enter into the congregation of the L-rd (Deut. 23:2), which he did do, of course, many times with great delight (Ps.42:4)…” — Dr. J. D. Watson, Minister, and Author

However, I do disagree with the comment stated by Dr. J.D. Watson shows that he obviously does not know the difference between the Tabernacle built by King David and the Tabernacle built by Moses. This mistake is too often made by not only by Christian scholars but also by Jewish scholars too.    

 *(In Hebrew: מִשְׁכַּן‎, mishkān, meaning “residence” or “dwelling place” is the meaning of the word Tabernacle)

The Tabernacle which Moses built was where Klal Yisroel (All of Israel) gathered and where the priests performed the sacrifices on behalf of Israel. Illegitimate children, however, were forbidden from participating in these sacrifices. (see Deuteronomy 23:2). Take note it was not because of his grandmother Ruth was a so-called convert Moabite woman which I established that she was fully Jewish by birth and not Moabite by birth but in fact a Jewish woman living in Moav. (see article who was Ruth really?

So, despite being chosen by G-d to be King of Israel, because of his illegitimacy. In fact, he could go to this Holy Mishkan built by Moses, but David could not participate in giving a sacrifice at the Mishkan built by Moses. The Ark of the Covenant was the most important piece of furniture in the Mishkan because the presence of G-d rested on the Ark as it sat inside the Holy of Holies, a place only the High Priest (Kohen Gadol) could enter.  David could not bring an offering to the Mishkan.

When David became King, the Mishkan which was built by Moses was at Shiloh, but after the Philistines destroyed Shiloh and temporarily captured the Ark of the Covenant  ( see 1 Samuel 4:1, 1 Samuel 6:1-2,  1 Samuel 7:1), the Mishkan that was built by Moses was moved to Gibeon and the Ark of the Covenant ended up at Kiriat Yearim after the Philistines decided to return it because of all the serious problems the Ark was causing them (see 2 Chronicles 1:1-4).

After David became King, he decided to move the Ark of the Covenant to a Tent (Mishkan) he built in Jerusalem where we know now as the City of David thus this Mishkan was called the Tabernacle of David (see also 1 Chronicles 16) instead of returning it to the Mishkan that Moses built.

“Then it happened as the ark of the L-rd came into the city of David that Michal the daughter of Saul looked out of the window and saw King David leaping and dancing before the L-rd; and she despised him in her heart.So, they brought in the ark of G-d and set it in its place inside the tent which David had built for it; and David offered a burnt offerings and peace offerings before the

L-rd.  When David had finished offering the burnt offering and the peace offering, he blessed the people in the name of the L-rd of hosts.  Further, he distributed to all the people, to all the multitude of Israel, both to men and women, a cake of bread and one of dates and one of raisins to each one. Then all the people departed each to his house.” (2 Samuel 6:16-19)

Though the Ark of the Covenant was now in Jerusalem, the priests continued making sacrifices at the Mishkan built by Moses 

(see 1 Chronicles 16:37-40).

So why did David move the Ark like this? David made this unusual move because he realized when Samuel anointed him king this meant despite his lowly status G-d accepted David just as he was and saw his potential. He found a loophole of how to give a sacrifice without over stepping what was established with the Mishkan that Moses built. David wanted to build it permanently but as we know the story goes his son Solomon has this privilege.

David deeply desired to be in G-d’s presence as all King’s would be privy to do, but he couldn’t do it at the Tabernacle built by Moses because of his illegitimacy of the sin his father Jesse had committed. It is here that I think that the reason David had red hair is because he took his ruddy skin coloring and hair after his mother and this too reminded his dark haired and dark-skinned brothers and father what sin had taken place and was committed by his father was evident. This might be the reason he was in the back fields with the sheep to keep him away from prying eyes of anyone who would come and visit the family.  

David Figured out that if he moved the Ark of the Covenant to a different location and different home. And despite one glitch (see 2 Samuel 6:6-7), the move had G-d’s approval.

At the Mishkan of David, King David now had full, free access to G-d’s Presence. Furthermore, there was no veil separating the people in the City of David from Ark of the Covenant, as there was in the Mishkan built by Moses. No such stipulation was given to David. In Essence anyone could come before G-d’s Presence at this simple tent.

Many of the Psalms were written for service in the Tabernacle of David. The move invoked a different type of service than what typically occurred at Mishkan built by Moses. At David’s Mishkan it became the Mishkan of the People. The book of Psalms became its how to guide a type of siddur (prayer book) to how the services were to be conducted and most likely were led by King David himself which we do see here.

When David had finished offering the burnt offering and the peace offering, he blessed the people in the name of the L-rd of hosts.  Further, he distributed to all the people, to all the multitude of Israel, both to men and women, a cake of bread and one of dates and one of raisins to each one. Then all the people departed each to his house.”(2 Samuel 6:16-19)

The Psalms tells us how service was in the Mishkan of King David:

Made sacrifices of praise, peace, and not just animal sacrifices to G-d (see Psalm 27:6). Clapped their hands (see Psalm 47:1). Lifted their hands in worship (see Psalm 134). Raised their voices in song (see Psalm 47:1, 5). Danced (see 2 Samuel 6:16; Psalm 149:3). Sought G-d in prayer ( see 1 Chronicle 16:10-11), and Played their instruments (see 1 Chronicles 23:5; Psalm 47:5; Psalm 149:3).

The Mishkan of David existed for a brief time between the Tabernacle of Moses and the Temple that David’s son Solomon constructed. After the Temple was completed, the priests transported the Ark of the Covenant from David’s Tent into the Temple’s Holy of Holies and the Glory of God fell upon it there ( see 2 Chronicles 5:14).

We later know it was told to King David that his son Solomon would take his place on the throne and that he was not given the commission to build the Temple much like Moses was not given the grant to see the Holy Promise Land. They both will get to see their heart’s desires when Moshiach (Messiah) arrives in the Geula (time of Redemption).

(see 1 Chronicles 28:1-10

But after the Temple’s construction by King Solomon, some strange prophecies started surfacing. The prophet Amos talked about the restoration of David’s Mishkan — not the Mishkan of Moses or even the Temple — but rather David’s small tent.

“In that day (Geula) I will raise up the fallen Tabernacle (Mishkan) of David,
And wall up its breaches; I will also raise up its ruins (Jerusalem/City of David). And I will rebuild it as in the days of old; That it may possess the remnant of Edom And, all the nations who are called by My Name, Declares G-d Almighty who will do this truly. (Amos 9:11-12)

Once again it will become the Mishkan of the people. The Holy Temple will be rebuilt (see once again but not without the presence of the Mishkan (Tabernacle) of David.

Here is another Jewish perspective from the prophets to think about. The Mishkan of David will be built quite possibly by Moshiach who will hold both office as King and priest and is known as “Branch” in jewish tradition.

The Temple Institute believe it is incumbent upon them to make all possible preparations in advance – and to build the Third Temple when the freedom to do so is gained on the Temple Mount – whether or not the Messiah arrives before or after a Third Temple is erected. However the Nevi’im (propehts) tell us something different.

The post-exilic prophet Zechariah (who wrote around the year 500 BC) says that whom he calls the “Branch” would Himself one day build a temple in Israel.The Branch will be an individual in whom the offices of both King and High Priest are combined:

“Take from them (the returning exiles from Babylon) silver and gold, and make a crown, and set it upon the head of Yehoshua, the son of Yehozadak, the high priest, and say to him, ‘Thus says the L-rd of hosts, “Behold, the man whose name is the Branch: for he shall grow up in his place, and he shall build the Temple of the G-d. It is he who shall build the temple of G-d, and shall bear royal honor as king, and shall sit and rule upon his throne. And a priest will come from his throne, and peaceful understanding shall be between both.” (Zechariah 6:13.)

The study of King David and his Mishkan is worth a full study on Shavuot. Because as we all know the Moshiach (Messiah)will be a Branch from the root of Jesse who will be from the House of King David and from the tribe of Yehuda (Judah).

Take note of what Psalms 103 says A Shir (song) of King David. This was really why King David desired his own Mishkan so that he may Praise G-d more freely and openly as he was.

Praise the Lrd, my soul;
    all my inmost being, praise his holy name.
Praise the Lrd, my soul,
    and forget not all his benefits—
who forgives all your sins
    and heals all your diseases,
who redeems your life from the pit
    and crowns you with love and compassion,
who satisfies your desires with good things    so that your youth is renewed like the eagle’s.

The Lrd works righteousness
    and justice for all the oppressed.

He made known his ways to Moses,
    his deeds to the people of Israel
:
The L-rd is compassionate and gracious,
    slow to anger, abounding in love.
He will not always accuse,
    nor will he harbor his anger forever;
10 he does not treat us as our sins deserve
    or repay us according to our iniquities.
11 For as high as the heavens are above the earth,
    so great is his love for those who fear him;
12 as far as the east is from the west,    so far has he removed our transgressions from us.

13 As a father has compassion on his children,
    so the L-rd has compassion on those who fear him;
14 for he knows how we are formed,
    he remembers that we are dust.
15 The life of mortals is like grass,
    they flourish like  flowers of the field;
16 the wind blows over it and it is gone,
    and its place remembers it no more.
17 But from everlasting to everlasting
    the L-rd’s love is with those who fear him,
    and his righteousness with their children’s children—
18 with those who keep his covenant
    and remember to obey his precepts.

19 The Lrd has established his throne in heaven,
    and his kingdom rules over all.

20 Praise the Lrd, you his angels,
    you mighty ones who do his bidding,
    who obey his word.
21 Praise the L
rd, all his heavenly hosts,
    you his servants who do his will.
22 Praise the
L-rd, all his works
    everywhere in his dominion.

Praise the L-rd, my soul.

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